Polish History

Beginning of the Polish state is falling on the first native masters from the dynasty of Piast. About 960 Mieszko I drew the attempt to unite from that year tribes living next door to oneself and in 966 he accepted Christianity and from this date Poland exist as the Christian , independent, centralized state to the European pattern. Between Piast civil wars broke out which undermined the significance of Poland. In the period of the Boleslaw Krzywousty rule Poland won the war with the empire- 1109, Pomerania was reflected (1113- 1119). To 1138 Poland as the patrimonial monarchy was governed indivisibly by masters from the dynasty Piast. In effect of the hereditary act of the prince Boleslaw Krzywousty country surrendered regional breaking. This period lasted for 150 years- the political clout of Poland weakened and in Europe Poland regained the strong position in the first half of the XIV century, crowned with the coronation of Wladyslaw Lokietek in 1320. Kazimierz Wielki- son of Lokietek didn’t have legal successor so the main clearing died down (1370) and Polish throne was taken over by allied with Piast Hungarian Andegawenowie (1370- 1384 king Ludwik Wegierski, his daughter Jadwiga and than elective kings from the Jagiellonian dynasty.

In 1569 The Crown of the Congress Kingdom of Poland entered into the constant relationship with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Polish Republic Both Nation come into existence from 1573 appointed masters ruled by free elections for 200 consecutive years. This state was one of the biggest territorially politic organisms of Europe. After the peace agreement with Russia concluded in Polanowie in 1634 it reached surface 900 thousand square kilometers. In this period in Polish Republic the specific political system developed based on the dominance of the very populous gentry and the system of the parliamentary governments. Jagiellonowie ruled in Poland, in Lithuania in the Czech Republic and in Hungary. The golden age of the state fell for the period of the last Jagiellonowie governments.

As similarly as in the Piast case also Jagiellonowie because of the legal lack successor went off the historical scene. The first free election took place in spring 1573. brother of the king of France Henry gained the Polish throne however after the year he left Poland and the gentry gave power to Stefan Batory, he put internal affairs in order and reinforced the authority of the royalty. After Batory death a Swedish prince Zygmunt became a king, the first Polish king from the dynasty of Vazov. Vazov ruled for 70 years (Zygmunt II, Wladyslaw IV, Jan Kazimierz till 1668) admittedly they kept prestige of Poland as the great and serious European country but unfortunately they implicated kingdom into series military conflicts. From the beginning of the XVII age Poland incessantly was at war with bordering powers. The country was destroyed, treasure emptied and opposition of a gentleman grew in view of the royalty. Plunged into anarchy Polish Republic started falling into the strong dependence of Russia. In 1772 Russia, Prussia and Austria made the first disassembly of Poland (Polish Republic lost one third of territory). In 1793 reached the second disassembly and two years later to the third disassembly of Poland. From this moment Poland was supposed to be blotted out from a map of Europe. The XVIII and XIX age brought hopes for regaining independence bound with military successes of Napoleon who after defeating Austria and Prussia created from the part of soil former Polish Republic Duchy Warsaw (1807). After defeat of the expedition to Russia in place of Duchy Warsaw appointed Polish Kingdom connected with Russia personal union (Tsar of Russia was a king of Poland at the same time). Poland didn’t renounce the thought about the full independence and took fights for example November revolt (1830) and January revolt (1863- 1865). After each of revolts the wave of political refugees left Polish land.

In 1914 the greatest armed conflict took place since the time of the American Civil War and of Napoleonic wars on the European continent. The First World War started (1914- 1918) between Central states i.e. Austria- Hungarians and Germany supported by Turkey and Bulgaria and with so-called Entente (Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Japan, Italy (since 1915), The United States (since 1917)). The war closed with defeat of central states and coming into existence in centre and southern Europe of numerous nation- states, also II Polish Republic. In spite of the enormousness of losses this war didn’t solve the majority of conflicts what twenty years supplied to the outbreak of the Second World War later. In September 1939 Polish land was filled by the Third Crowed (III Rzesza??) and the USSR. The Second World War started, the greatest armed conflict in the history of world lasting on 1 September till 8 May in Europe, including coverage of the warfare almost entire Europe, eastern and south eastern Asia, north Africa, part of the Middle East. Unofficially The Second World War started in 1937 when Japanese empire attacked the Chinese Republic. States of pivots were main part of conflicts (the Third Crowed- Germany, Italy and Japan) and states of the anty- Nazi coalition (ally- Poland, France and Great Britain were first). Germany had pact singed from the USSR Ribbentrop- Molotov a non- aggression pact which contained division of Centre and Eastern Europe. 17 September 1939 made the USSR of aggression without declaring war to Poland which was running the war with Germany Third Crowed. The USSR became the participant of the Second World War indeed as the ally of the Third Crowed. The aggression led to mass ethnic persecution, arrests and settings in concentration camps, execution, murders and universal deportations. After ending the war Poland was behind so- called Iron Curtain and communists seized power in it. The country was turned into Poland Folk Republic. Universally 22 July 1944 regarded as the beginning of Folk Poland. At the end of years 70 social dissatisfaction grew and a wave of strikes, demonstration started. Lech Walesa worker from the shipyard has headed those strikes. August 1980 went down in history because of strikes on the Coast. Lech Walesa ( representative striking) and Mieczyslaw Jagielski (government side) singed the August Agreement. Period lasting for 15 months of the freedom in the communist state has followed and a registered trade union “Solidarnosc” came into existence with Lech Walesa at the head. Period of freedom of Poles was finished with material law in 1981- 1983. In 1983 The Nobel Peace Prize was granted to Lech Walesa. Till 1989 one- party system prevailed in Poland. Parliamentary election in 1989 initiated processes of the democratization and economic reforms. In 1989 Round Table (so- called_ took place, conversations of Polish Folk Republic authorities with representative of the opposition and the Church, as a result the political transformation of the Polish Folk Republic started. The first democratic presidential elections took place in 1990, Lech Walesa became president of Polish Republic.

Not without influence on events in eastern Europe and Asia in 80 the 20th century had election pole of Pope. John Paul the Second was the first Pope from Poland like also first after 455 years with bishop of Rome not being an Italian. System transformations in Poland as a last resort led the Polish Folk Republic to the fall and of different dictatorships from the Eastern Block of regaining independence by Poland and coming into existence Third Polish Republic. A new stage started in the history of Poland for example joining in 1999 politically- military organization NATO so- called North Atlantic Pact and then in 2004 to the European Union. The long term process of political. Economic and social integration made democratic European countries biggest and most thriving organization of this type in the world, from 2007 includes 27 states members.